I would like to thank Petra Chu and Robert Alvin Adler for their helpful suggestions in the editing of this paper.
1. See also Titus M. Eliëns, Marjan Groot, and Frans Leidelmeijer, eds., Avant-garde Design. Dutch Decorative Art 1890-1940, (London: Philip Wilson, 1997), 42-47. So far, this is the most complete survey in English on Dutch decorative art of this period, with a lexicon of artists, companies and workshops. The Arts and Crafts Gallery is discussed here in general. This gallery is a well known and often mentioned aspect of the history of Dutch decorative art around 1900. The first documented article on the gallery was written in 1982 by Joke de Mooy, "Kunsthandel Arts and Crafts in Den Haag, 1898-1904," Kunstlicht (winter 1982-1983): 8, 19-23. But a reconstruction of the gallery's premises and a detailed factual analysis of the artifacts it showed—as has been done with Bings L'Art Nouveau—has not yet been made.
2. For Siegfried Bing and his Salon de L'Art Nouveau: Gabriel P. Weisberg, Art Nouveau Bing: Paris Style 1900 (New York and Washington: Harry N. Abrams and the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service, 1986); Gabriel P. Weisberg, Edwin Becker, and Évelyne Possémé, eds., The Origins of L'Art Nouveau, The Bing Empire. Exh. cat. (Amsterdam: Van Gogh Museum; Paris: Musée des Arts Décoratifs; Antwerp: Mercatorfonds, 2004).
3. Johan Thorn Prikker to Henri Borel, November 1895, in Joop M. Joosten, De Brieven van Johan Thorn Prikker aan Henri Borel en anderen 1892-1904: Met ter inleiding fragmenten uit het dagboek van Henri Borel 1890-1892, (Nieuwkoop: Uitgeverij Heuff, 1980), 238, letter 43. On January 6, 1896, he again wrote that his work was at Bing's gallery; Joosten, De Brieven, 241, letter 47.
4. Quote from a letter from Johan Thorn Prikker to Henry van de Velde, January 1898, in Joosten, De Brieven, 266, letter 67: "Beste vriend. Een van m'n kennissen zal in den Haag 'n kunstzaak beginnen, iets in de geest zooals die van Bing in Parijs. Behalve enkele schilderijen wilde hij speciaal toegepaste Kunst tentoonstellen. Ik heb hem aangeraden eens bij jou aan te komen, om je steun te vragen, en buitendien om van jou adressen, en liefst aanbevelingen voor Belgischen en Franschen artiesten te krijgen." For his difficulties with batik, ibid., pages 252, letter 53, 263, letter 65, 264, letter 66.
5. W. Crane, "Decorative Art at Turin: Notes upon some of the Sections," The Art Journal, n.s., (1902): 261.
6. Catherine Krahmer, "Über die Anfange des Neuen Stils: Henry van de Velde * Siegfried Bing * Julius Meier-Graefe," in Klaus-Jürgen Sembach and Birgit Schulte, eds., Henry van de Velde: Ein europaïscher Künstler seiner Zeit (Cologne: Wienand Verlag, 1992), 162.
7. Compare with p. 49 in Klaus-Jürgen Sembach, Henry van de Velde (New York: Rizzoli, 1989), and Weisberg, Art Nouveau Bing, fig. 59, right. For Thorn Prikker's visits to Bloemenwerf: Joosten, De Brieven, 252, letter 53, 21 November 1896. Van de Velde had a photo of Thorn Prikker in his study at Bloemenwerf. See Sembach and Schulte, Henry van de Velde, 218, fig. 45.
8. Weisberg, Art Nouveau Bing, 66-70.
9. Évelyne Possémé, "Bing and England," in Weisberg, Becker, and Possémé, The Origins of L'Art Nouveau, 153-162.
10. Sembach, Henry van de Velde, 11-16, 35-36.
11. Weisberg, Becker, and Possémé, The Origins of L'Art Nouveau, 154.
12. Parts of these interiors in Wolf D. Pecher, Henry van de Velde: Das Gesamtwerk, vol. 1 (Gestaltung) , (Munich: Factum, 1981), 124-127. The dining room mantelpiece was again exhibited in Vienna in December 1900.
13. For a contemporary photograph of the Biart-interior, see Pecher, Henry van de Velde, 99, and Sembach, Henry van de Velde, 55; for references to the 1899 catalogue, see Pecher, Henry van de Velde, 124-125.
14. J.V. [Jan Veth], "Een nieuwe kunsthandel," De Kroniek 4 (4 september 1898), 289, for Brangwyn, Köpping, and Tiffany. This review gives the Dutch word "tapijt" for the two Brangwyn pieces. This probably refers to carpets, although in Dutch the word means tapestry as well. There is a color illustration of the "Japanese Vine" carpet in Weisberg, Becker and Possémé, The Origins of L'Art Nouveau, 152, fig. 159, and a second, smaller bedside carpet from ca. 1898 with less bright colors on 160, fig. 175.
15. J.V., "Een nieuwe kunsthandel."
16. J.H.S., "Kunstnijverheid," De Amsterdammer, 18 September 1898.
17. J.V., 'Een nieuwe kunsthandel'. Six pieces of Finch pottery for the Arts and Crafts gallery are now in the collection of the Central Museum, Utrecht.
18. G., "Kunst*en Letternieuws," Het Vaderland 10 August 1898.
19. J.H.S., "Kunstnijverheid."
20. G., "Kunst*en Letternieuws."
21. Ibid. The carpets/tapestries may have been the two Brangwyn pieces and the other products probably included those from the mentioned artists.
22. J.V., "Een nieuwe kunsthandel," and "Letteren en Kunst. In Den Haag," Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant 28 August 1898.
23. "Letteren en Kunst;" J.V. "Een nieuwe kunsthandel."
24. I would like to thank Martin Eidelberg for this suggestion concerning the Tiffany glass.
25. Joosten, De Brieven, 238 letter 43.
26. The Netherlands had already established trade contacts with Japan in the early 17th century. See Stefan van Raay, ed., Imitation and Inspiration. Japanese Influence on Dutch Art (Amsterdam: Art Unlimited Books, 1989). In the 19th century Japanese artifacts were collected by Philippe Franz von Siebold, who had a cabinet with Japanese artifacts and displayed a choice of these artifacts at national Dutch exhibitions. However, artists of the Dutch reform movement did not use Japan as a source of inspiration until the 1890s.
27. Weisberg, Art Nouveau Bing, 31-32.
28. Joosten, De Brieven, 238, letter 43; Mienke Simon Thomas, De leer van het ornament: Versieren volgens voorschrift 1850-1930 (Amsterdam: De Bataafsche Leeuw, 1996), 142-151.
29. Titus M. Eliëns, "Dutch Lacquerwork in the Nineteenth Century," in Imitation and Inspiration, 87-88; Eliëns, "Haagse interieurs rond 1900," in Den Haag rond 1900: Een bloeiend kunstleven (Blaricum: V+K Publishing, 1998), 25-26.
30. Bing had workshops from 1898 onwards for jewelry and metalware, furniture, handbags, carpets, fabrics, tapestries, and ceramics. In 1899 he enlarged his workshop space. Weisberg, Art Nouveau Bing, 142-151, and Gabriel P. Weisberg, "Redesigning the Home: Bing's Art Nouveau Workshops," in Weisberg, Becker and Possémé, The Origins of L'Art Nouveau, 165-173.
31. G. Heuvelman, "Batikken: Een nieuwe tak van kunstnijverheid in Nederland," Eigen haard (1900), 229. Recently, for Wegerif in general: Marjan Groot and Hanneke Oosterhof, Textielkunstenaressen art nouveau art deco 1900-1930 (Tilburg: Dutch Textile Museum, 2005).
32. The manuscript is now in the possesion of relatives of Agathe Wegerif.
33. For these workshops, see Susan Legêne and Berteke Waaldijk, "Reverse Images*Patterns of Absence: Batik and Representation of Colonialism in the Netherlands," in I. van Hout, ed., Exh. cat. Batik-Drawn in Wax: 200 Years of Batik Art from Indonesia in the Tropenmuseum Collection (Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute, 2001), 34-65.
34. Heuvelman, "Batikken," 231.
35. Ibid., 230.
36. Illustrated in Pecher, Henry van de Velde, 102, and 270 (reproduction of catalogue page showing items 1109, 1109a. In his caption, Pecher mentions that the chair was exhibited at Meier-Graefe's La Maison Moderne in 1899-1900, but this seems to be wrong; Sembach, Henry van de Velde, 218, and fig. 51; Weisberg, Becker and Possémé, The Origins of L'Art Nouveau, 106 fig. 109 (in color). The chair was also made with a woven cover from the weaving colony Scherrebeck in Germany. After mid-1898 Bing reported that he had no more furniture by Van de Velde and was coordinating the manufacturing of furniture himself. Weisberg, Art Nouveau Bing, 145.
37. Letter from Johan Thorn Prikker to Henry van de Velde, 26 July 1897, in Joosten, De Brieven, 258, letter 60, and 260, letter 63. For the relation between Van de Velde, Bing, and Meier-Graefe, see Krahmer in Sembach and Schulte, Henry van de Velde, 149-162.
38. Heuvelman, "Batikken," 230.
39. G. Fuchs, "Holländische Innenräume. II. Chris und Agathe Wegerif * Apeldoorn," Innen-Dekoration 15 (1904), 45
40. Cf. a favorable review by Tom Schilperoort, "Batikwerk als industrie," Op de Hoogte 7 (1910), 623-627.
41. Yvonne Brunhammer and Suzanne Tise, French Decorative Art: The Société des artistes décorateurs 1900-1942 (Paris: Flammarion, 1990), 284.
42. Gabriele D'Annunzio, Forse che si, forse che no. (n.p.,1910; Milan: Mondadori, 1981), 289-290 (Citation to the 1981 edition).
43. Marjan Groot and Hanneke Oosterhof, Handleiding bij de tentoonstelling Chris Wegerif (1859-1920) en Agathe Wegerif-Gravestein (1867-1944) meubel-, textiel- en bouwkunst 1896-1920 (Historical Museum Apeldoorn: Apeldoorn, 1995-1996), 9-12 for a short list of exhibitions and biographical facts; Hanneke Oosterhof, "Agathe Wegerif-Gravestein (1867-1944) Sierkunstenares en schilderes" (Drs. thesis, Open University Heerlen, 2001), 114 (list of exhibitions). The exhibition lists in both publications were compiled from a scrapbook of Agathe Wegerif containing newspaper reviews, now in the possesion of relatives of Wegerif.
44. Collection Municipal Museum, The Hague.
45. Jacq. R.v.S. [Jacqueline Reyneke van Stuwe], "Batikwerk," De Haagsche Vrouwenkroniek 4 (24 November 1917), 47. Color illustrations and a discussion of her work in Groot and Oosterhof, Textielkunstenaressen, 2005, 40-45.
46. Quote from Weisberg, Art Nouveau Bing, 240. For leather bookbindings by Eva Mannerheim Sparre, Alexandra Thaulow, and Antoinette Vallgren, and on the the Rookwood painters Rose Fechheimer, Anna Marie Valentien, and Josephine Zettel, see Weisberg, Art Nouveau Bing, 41-42, 125, 131 and figs. 68, 69, 131, and 236; for portraits by Marie Bermond, ibid., 230-233, 235; for sculptures by Meta Warrick, ibid., 240.
47. 'T.K.L. Sluyterman, "_Modern Arts and Crafts Movement in Holland,' The Art Workers Guild London 27 March 1903", De Bouwwereld (1903), 112.
48. De Mooy, "Kunsthandel Arts and Crafts."
49. Eliëns: "Haagse interieurs," 22. The firm, called Binnenhuis Die Haghe, sold art, contemporary decorative art (ceramics from Amstelhoek and Willem Brouwer), and antiques, and had a furniture and metal workshop. The villa in The Hague that Van de Velde designed for doctor W.J. Leuring was the (still well-preserved) villa De Zeemeeuw (The Seagull), 1901-1902. See Pecher, Henry van de Velde, 193-194.
50. Frans Netscher, Joh. Th. Uiterwijk Arts and Crafts, (n.p., n.d.,[The Hague 1901]). There are a few copies of this brochure in various archives. One, with a parchment leather binding, is in the collection of gifts presented to the Royal Family, part of the Royal Family Archives in The Hague. Another one, with a paper cover, is in the library of the Municipal Museum, The Hague.
51. "Studio Talk," The Studio 23, no. 101 (1901): 209-210.
52. When I documented the album in 1995-1996, it was in the collection of the Museum Simon Van Gijn in Dordrecht, a museum with important 18th and 19th-century period rooms. The curator of the museum informed me in 1995 about the album after he had heard of the preparations I was working on at the time for an exhibition on Wegerif. Dordrecht had nothing to do with the Arts and Crafts gallery, and it is unclear how the album came in the possession of this museum and its provenance was not registered. The quality of the photographs indicates that it was an unofficial album; they seem to have been taken with little regard for the quality of the image, as though the only goal was to create a visual inventory of the pieces. There were no written notes in the album that could clarify this any further, and I have not found other clues afterwards. Most pieces of furniture we know today are in the collection of the Municipal Museum, The Hague. A few are in the Historical Museum Apeldoorn, and a number are still in the possession of relatives of Wegerif.
53. For an analysis of the stylistic similarities, (in Dutch but with many illustrations), comparing the furniture of the Arts and Crafts gallery with examples from the mentioned artists see Marjan Groot, "Een dilemma voor de Nieuwe Kunst. Modern eclecticisme in de meubelkunst van Chris Wegerif voor de firma Arts and Crafts, 1901-1906," Jong Holland 14, no. 2 (1998): 36-51. Wegerif's furniture is indebted to Mackintosh. Cf., Alan Crawford, Charles Rennie Mackintosh (London: Thames and Hudson, 1995), 138-139, who asserts that it is hard to find Mackintosh's influence with European designers.
54. Netscher, Joh. Th. Uiterwijk,, 6-8, 19.
55. The Boer War, also called Second Transvaal War in South Africa (1899-1902), was a conflict between the British and the Boeren (Dutch, but also German and French colonists), from the republics Oranje Vrijstaat and Transvaal. From the First Transvaal War in 1877 onwards their independence was threatened by British annexation. Because of the war, many Dutch preferred to leave the country instead of submitting to a British government.
56. In Wegerif's family, the Scottish Orkney-Chair was also called the Transvaal-chair.
57. Nicola Gordon Bowe, ed., Art and the National Dream. The Search for Vernacular Expression in Turn-of-the-Century Design (Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 1993), with essays on this subject for, e.g., Japan, America, Russia, Poland, Hungary, Norway, Finland, and Ireland. The Netherlands are not included, but would have been a good subject, too.
58. Quoted in Weisberg, Art Nouveau Bing, 77. Stark contrasts between artists from different countries exhibiting at Bing were also noticed. See for this Possémé, "Bing and England," 152-153.
59. In this respect, a comparison with the work of Olbrich that was published at the time Wegerif designed for the Arts and Crafts gallery is rewarding. See for this the sketches by Olbrich in Ideen von Olbrich, (Stuttgart: Arnold'sche, 1992), (facsimile of the second edition by Ludwig Hevesi, Leipzig 1904; first edition published in Vienna in 1899); Joseph Maria Olbrich: Vollständiger Nachdruck der drei Originalbände von 1901-1914 (Tübingen: Wasmuth, 1988) (originally published as: Architektur von Olbrich (Berlin: Ernst Wasmuth, 1901-1914).
60. "… geestelijke zuivering door onthouding en ascetisme." L. Simons, "Een Dokument van Duitsche opdirkings-kunst," Onze kunst 1 (1902), 48-53.
61. Ibid. The exhibition Ein Dokument deutscher Kunst was documented by A. Koch, Die Ausstellung der Darmstädter Künstlerkolonie: Ein Dokument deutscher Kunst (Darmstadt: Alexander Koch, 1901). In 1996, the museum of this German artists' colony did not have any work by Wegerif. Letter from dr. R. Ulmer to M. Groot, 29 May, 1996.
62. Leo Nacht, Turin 1902 (Berlin: Ernst Wasmuth, 1902), Foreword, "In Turin aber gab es viel Unzweckmäsziges, viel Unkonstruktives.… In uns steckt eine tiefe Sehnsucht, aber nicht nach der nackten Konstruktion und der philiströsen Zweckmäszigkeit, sondern nach künstlerischen Befreiung von den rein materiellen Grundlagen unserer Kunst …". This rare publication is in the collections of the National Art Library, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, and Harvard University's Frances Loeb Library.
63. E. Thovez, "The International Exhibition of Modern Decorative Art at Turin * The Dutch Section," The Studio 26 (1902): 113, 203-213; Georg Fuchs, L'Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs Modernes (Darmstadt: Alexander Koch, 1902). Also, Debora J. Meijers, "Holland und die Gross-Deutsche Kultur; Een Duitse reactie op de Nederlandse 'Nieuwe Kunst,'" Bulletin geschiedenis Kunst en Cultuur 3, no. 3 (1994): 206-234.
64. See E. Godoli, "_... uno stile uniforme, che non è altro che lo stile austro-tedesco,' Polemiche sull'architettura dell'esposizione," in R. Bossaglia, E. Godoli, and M. Rosci, eds., Exh. cat. Torino 1902. Le Arti Decorative Internazionali del Nuovo Secolo (Turin: Fabbri editori 1994), 66-69.
65. A contemporary photograph of this room is in Weisberg, Art Nouveau Bing, 70, fig. 62, and in Weisberg, Becker and Possémé, The Origins of L'Art Nouveau, 109, figs. 113 and 114 (with one panel by Ranson, 1895, in color), 124 and 12,5 fig.129 (three of eleven decorative panels from the circular salon by Besnard, c. 1895, in color).
66. For photographs of this, see Karin Gaillard, "Sobere eerlijkheid, behaaglijke eenvoud. Het binnenhuis volgens Berlage," in Ellinoor Bergvelt, Frans van Burkom, and Karin Gaillard, eds., Van neorenaissance tot postmodernisme/From neo-renaissance to postmodernism. Honderdvijfentwintig jaar Nederlandse interieurs/A hundred and twenty-five years of Dutch interiors 1870-1995 (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 1996), 60, plates 45-47, and 68, plates 61-63. Cf., Marjan Groot, "Revolutionaire weelde en ambachtelijke schoonheid: Van Wisselingh en Arts and Crafts," in idem, 99-109.
67. Wolfgang Breithaupt, "Holländische Land- und Strandhäuser erbaut von den Architekten Han & C. Wegerif und Frau Agathe Wegerif-Gravestein," Innen-Dekoration 29 (October 1918), 265-288.